September 13, 2010

The People at the End of the Road

MOSHI Land of Love Land of Beauty Land of Poverty

I have been struggling for a way to present a plea for support, and I still am at a loss. Part of the reason for my difficulty is that I have been so focused on the Moshi school children supported by KIWAKKUKI, that I never thought about the college aged children. What happens when the secondary school finishes and these young orphans manage to pass their exams and enter college. College is simply unattainable for most Tanzanians, and particularly so for an orphan who receives no support from any family member. Yet, is this not the aim of our school programs? What happens when we have a bright young person who supports other siblings, but who cannot continue in school because of fees. There is no such thing as a student loan like we have in the United States. Only if a boy scores in Division I at the end of the year will he be eligible for some amount of scholarship assistance, a girl Level I or II. What happens when you barely miss these levels, but your desire to pursue your degree is great? I just finished Greg Mortenson's second book "Stones for Schools" and have been moved once again by the power of his words. They particularly strike a chord with me because his father was one of the key builders of KCMC hospital, and his family were great friends of our dear friends, The Emmanuel's of Machame and Moshi.

So, I feel that "six degrees of seperation, and have read his books and taken heart in his words.

He quotes from “The Little Prince” by Antoine de Saint-ExupĂ©ry, “It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; What is essential is invisible to the eye.” And he talks about listening. Listen to your community and listen to their needs. Whose agenda is this anyway? I have often said of KIWAKKUKI and other NGO’s that they have to follow the funding sources regardless of whether they are exactly what the membership of the organization had requested. An example to the contrary, that of providing the service that the membership had requested is our mobile voluntary counseling and testing. This request goes as far back as 2006, and finally it is actively occurring, at least in some of the districts.

So, when I was presented with a new young man on the last trip, my heart broke again. As Verynice said to me, “we supported him all the way through secondary school and he has done well. He walked 5 kilometers to see you when he heard that you were in town. He has no bus fare, and no food. We often let him help here to earn bus fare and a bag of corn meal for his siblings. Is there anything you can do?”

Because I have no answer for this young man, with his permission, I have typed his story for you and share his picture (with me and my short Alpesh hair cut)

My name is Peter Ancelim Amani. I am the second born in the family of four children with 1 sister and two brothers. I was born on 21st February 1989. It happened that I was born in a very poor family. My father is a tailor who lives in Moshi Rural in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. His income/day is less than 1 US dollar.

My mother did involve herself in subsistence farming and from this we got food and clothes. We have suffered many problems. When my sister was young, she suffered from measles. Due to the poverty of the family, she failed to attend the hospital for treatment and the measles caused blindness in one eye.

I started my primary school education in 1996 and finished in 2002. At this time, I had government support for education and we had to contribute very little. to make up the difference in school fees. However, at the time, my mother worked in a Shamba and it was her subsistence farming that allowed her to pay for my school fees.

Despite the fact that she was working in the Shamba, she also was suffering from frequent illnesses, though at the time I was young and didn’t wonder what the reasons were for these illnesses. She was advised by some neighbors to be checked out by the hospital because her health was deteriorating and it was then that she discovered that she was HIV-infected. When she disclosed her condition to my father, he was tested but found out to be negative.

Hardships in our lives increased after her discovery of being HIV-infected. I was the eldest in the family and therefore responsible for the care of my mother, and then my father separated from my mother because of the humiliation that she was HIV-infected. She was the one forced out of the house, and she decided to rent a room near us in order to see us when she could and when we could see her. And, it was during this time that I was first unable to get school fees. I thank God that I was smart in the class, and the head teacher offered me a scholarship to study for free after he learned what was happening in our home.

My mother was allowed back in the house when she became very weak. At this time I was in primary grade 5. On Wednesday, May 9th 2001 she passed away. Though it was very hard, I found the courage to go on with school until I finished my primary education in 2002.

I did very well with my primary school examination and I was selected to join the St. James Seminary for ordinary level secondary education (2003-2006). School fees for secondary are high, ten times higher than primary level. Because I knew that I didn’t have this kind of money, I started to lose hope of going on with school and tried to think of what I could do to raise income for my smaller brothers and sister. Fortunately, one of the neighbors came to me and took me to KIWAKKUKI to speak to the orphan’s department. The officers there took the time to listen to me and to verify my story, and they then agreed to pay for my school fees.

The help from KIWAKKUKI assisted me to finish my ordinary secondary school, where I did my national exam and did very well. Thus, I was selected to attend Galanos Secondary High School for Advanced Level Education. The school fees were approximately the same, and therefore KIWAKKUKI continued to support me. I finished my advanced degree in February 2009, passed my exams well and was selected to attend University.

I am now at the Moshi University College of Co-operative and Business Studies (MUCCoBS) taking a Bachelor of Arts and Microfinance and Enterprises Development. (BA-MFED) My registration number is BA-MFED/06/09.

Throughout the time I have been in school, I have wanted to become a business entrepreneur, and had thought about the different activities in which I could be come involved. This has been ever since I was a young child. But life has become much more difficult now. University fees, accommodation and meals are all very expensive. I joined the university in October 2009 and have finished the first year. However, I was only able to pay 15% of the first year as that is the maximum that KIWAKKUKI can donate. The university fees and expenses are above KIWAKKUKI’s budget for one person.

In order for me to go on with my studies in October this year I am supposed to pay for the remainder of last year and at least 40% of next year.

I am writing this story with a lot of tears, asking anyone who might listen or think that they can help me. I beg your assistance your advice, your courage and anything that you might find to assist me. Education is the only think that I have now, and my only hope to save my family. My father is gone, we don’t know where, and I am the final one who is expected to help out.


Peter Ancelim Amani

These are the direct words of a young man who came to KIWAKKUKI to discuss ways of budgeting his college years. He lives in the Rau Ward of Moshi Urban, and walked about 5 miles to KIWAKKUKI because he didn’t have bus fare home. I am told that when he comes to KIWAKKUKI, he always offers to help clean or move heavy furniture or do odd jobs without even knowing whether or not he will receive any donation.

I am always impressed with the sincerity and work ethic that these young people have regarding school. This is something that we take for granted here. Primary and High School are free and there are loans and scholarships available for those persons with very low incomes. That is not the case here in Tanzania. In order to qualify for any assistance outside of non-governmental organizations, a young man has to score a grade level 1 on final exams at the college level, a young woman 1 or
2. (More young men are in school at this time than women). But here, is a young man who not only attends school but has to take care of his 3 younger siblings, one of whom has a disability due to the blindness in one eye. It almost seems impossible that he can succeed. Very few programs assist with University, especially when the father is alive, even if he is unwilling or unable to be located.

So I am writing this to ask for help for this young man. There are ways to donate to his school. One would be to donate directly to KIWAKKUKI using his name for college fees. (this way is fine except that it is not tax deductible because KIWAKKUKI is not a tax exempt organization recognized by the US Government. However, there are two other funds that are recognized and can take donations that can be sent directly for his assistance.

Global Connections For Change is a tax exempt organization in North Carolina that is connected with Duke University. All proceeds go to KIWAKKUKI. As well, the Duke CAB/Moshi Fund is another tax exempt code within Duke University that wires any designated money to Moshi for who ever we know is being sponsored.

The address for Global Connections is:
Global Connections for Change
PO Box 51162
Durham, NC 27717

For the Duke Fund is:
Duke/Moshi CAB Fund
Box 3112 DUMC
Durham, NC 27710
Attn: Artie Hendricks

You may also contact me at my gmail
As you can see, this is a dedicated man, and one who will do anything to help himself and his family. I hope you will offer help.


KIWAKKUKI Hang On to Your Hats!

Some of the KIWAKKUKI staff at lunch with John and me.
KIWAKKUKI is always a “hold your breath” moment. Something is always happening, but you don’t know what it will be until you walk in the door. Will there be workshops and everyone gone? Will there be people on leave? Will there be a grant deadline and you are suddenly the one who has to edit and send? What will it be? This visit was a mixture. All the bags of shoes and clothes that we dragged through Europe, overweight as they were, made it in tact to our A-5 home. Once five bags were divvied up, it seemed so small! As my dada (sister) Verynice made piles for the 7 districts I thought—well every district will get at least 4 T-shirts, 1 hoodie, 3 pair of tennis shoes, ½ pr of boys shoes, 3 pair of girls shoes, 2 pair of jeans, 2 small dresses, 2 large dresses. Wow-I think. How did those huge bags become so small? As I was unpacking the bags, I learn that one of my favorite projects is coming to a stunning grinding halt. The economy has caused the Spanish Government to pull the plug on Life and Living. This was a program that moved KIWAKKUKI beyond HIV alone towards helping young people learn about how to have sustainable work, the value of work, clean water, growing food, while at the same time teaching prevention and issues about delaying sex and HIV/TB. Yet, this program suddenly ends and all the staff will be given notices. These guys are dedicated, top notch young people who loaded up the car with materials day after day, and went to schools and meeting places to work with clubs and district and ward leaders to bring groups and clubs together to plan sustainable, healthy lives, pulled whoosh! Did I see tears from these workers? No, they are hopeful that something will happen. Surely it will, because they have really given their hearts to this project. Yet there is something distinctly East African in saying, “If God wills it”.

My dada and I headed out to the rural hills to find sweet Jacinta and the head master of her school who had taken her into his family to live. It was a dusty day as usual & we had near death experiences with speeding trucks and dala dalas.

It is Wednesday afternoon school sports day in Kirua and "football" is the place to be.

It is Market day in Kirua and people have been drinking mbege (banana beer) as they sell their corn and bananas and millet.
(I had never seen millet on the plant)
We tread carefully. We arrive at the school hopeful to find Jacinta and the headmaster with whom she lives, but we find that his wife had died just this morning, and he had gone home with Jacinta. After pondering carefully, we decided that we knew the headmaster well enough to pay respects.

What did I expect of this headmaster’s house. He runs a small private school. He always looks immaculately dressed. I expected a Shantytown fancy house. What we found was a small house down a long steep path (only on foot) that was mostly sticks and mud that had one small cinderblock area with a small living room, two rooms off from that. Outdoor toilets, some other living rooms with stick and mud. Our headmaster looked as if he had lost 20 lbs. He sat with another friend on the traditional stools outside. From inside came the wails of his oldest daughter who had stayed at KCMC for the last night with her mother. Dada Monyo and I did our best to express our condolences. We heard the story of the death of a dear wife and mother. We heard from this wonderful man, the conversation with the KCMC doctor who offered the family the possibility of letting the wife go without pain. For many families, agreeing to pain management rather than treatment is impossible. This man loved his wife enough to let her go. Wow. We brought Jacinta up the hill to talk to her. She looked great. She was sad, but said that she loved school and loved being with new friends and being able to be a teenager, not a wife. (You might remember from previous blogs, that Jacinta had run away from her grandfather’s home after she found that as soon as she graduated from Primary School at the age of 12, she had been sold to be married to an old man.) The whole trip was one of sadness and hope.

As we moved down the mountain to visit Judith, we found another situation altogether. We met with Judy’s grandmother, an aunt and two children in a desolated area of immense poverty down another long footpath. Judith had just left and her grandmother didn’t know where. When we reached her mother, we learned that Judy had been sick repeatedly and had to stop going to school because she was getting so far behind. Now it will be impossible for her to pass her exams, she will have to repeat. Additionally, her CD4 count has dropped below 200 and she has been sick off and on. Their house fell during the rainy season, and they have been allowed to live in one small room with the grandmother-4 of them while her mother tries to support the family by selling used clothes and shoes.

Judy had gone to Arusha to stay for a short while with a relative who could offer her a warmer place to stay, but she could only be there for a week or two at the most and would return. She waited for us to come until the last dala dala left for Arusha and thought we wouldn’t be coming. Of course, she couldn’t have known about the tragedy just above her in Kirua. We talked to Judy’s mother about the need for Judy to start going to the Child Centered Family Care Center at KCMC and to return to school even for catch up. We made a plan that she should repeat her grade so that she could pass her exams, and have faith that she is cared for by her donors Kathy and Candy. Her mother sent her huge thanks for our visit, even though we weren’t able to talk to Judy. We were unable to take any pictures because we were right beside the mosque, and would give a bad perception to the worshipers.

(Judith in better days)
We returned from our trip, weary, sad, disappointed, and worried. Will Jacinta be able to remain at the headmaster’s now that his wife has died or will it “look” bad. Will the headmaster return to his position? This happy joyful young woman has no idea of the potential pain lying ahead. Will Judy’s family get a new roof for their sticks and mud house? Will Judy actually go to KCMC? How can she improve her CD4 count, go to school and stay healthy?

KIWAKKUKI has hundreds of these children, each with their own stories. I can only be involved with a few. It is a privilege and a curse. As a social worker for more than 30 years, I have seen my share of misery and tragedy, what KIWAKKUKI adds to my portfolio, is a little more understanding of the human condition.

May 18, 2010

Historical Background
ECD is an abbreviation of Early Childhood Development.
This focused on early children careering from embryo, infant and child as human being.
This project focus on how do caregivers take responsibilities to take care of children who lost their parents and they do have to change their primary life style and cope with secondary lives (Lives without/with one parent).
The system of children rearing differs from place to place due to different ideologies, traditions and culture.
To some areas it seems that child rearing start from when a mother is pregnant and the process continue until berth.
At KIWAKKUKI this project took over since 2003 when we started to support caregivers for their children
More bout 1500 families from Moshi Urban, Moshi Rural and Mwanga benefited from this project
A Situation Analysis of Early Childhood Development in Moshi District
• KIWAKKUKI conducted Situation Analysis in 2008.
• The main purpose was to collect and compile useful data needed to identify challenges and opportunities available in the districts especially in the location where KIWAKKUKI has ECD and other interventions.
• The data collected was about ECD challenges, Strengths and opportunities related to preparedness of all young children for successful schooling life, preparedness of schools and links and continuity between community, schools and policy environments to support preparedness of children and school
The district level needs assessment was guided by the three major objectives which are;

• To identify, analyze strengths, opportunities and challenges related to preparedness of young children for success in school and life.
– Assess if families and community members have the ability to provide necessary care and necessary information and socialization for young children
– Assess and establish types and quality mechanisms and support structures required by families, and communities to provide quality services to young children so that they can be ready for successful schooling
– Propose specific recommendations related to the challenges, strengths and opportunities related to preparedness of parents and communities to support all young children’s early success and transition to school.

• To identify and analyze the preparedness of schools for young children’s early success, covering key issues on access, quality, and curriculum and teaching-learning methodologies.
• To propose specific actions for different players based on the strengths, opportunities and challenges related to the links/relationships between family/community and service providers (health care facilities, schools, social work, judiciary etc)
Highlight specific implications for ECD partners strategic planning priorities and the Five Year Programme planning in relation to:-

• National situational analysis of ECD in Tanzania, focusing on the transition and relationships between home and school environments for children, families and communities.
• Levels of awareness of stakeholders on ECD and the overall benefits for children and policy advocacy needs.
• priority needs for capacity development and improvement of ECD service provision (quantity and quality)
• documentation of existing research & research priorities on ECD
Key findings from this study indicate that:About Children preparedness for successful schooling;

• Understanding of parents and care givers about children preparedness for successful schooling and life vary and mixed. It is influenced by a number of factors; these range from past experiences (they way families used to socialize and prepare young children for life), value system, economic realities, peer pressures to availability of quality and appropriate facilities for young children.

• Both communities and parents and care givers are aware of the need for young children to be prepared well so that they can be able to join and succeed in schools, They also indicate that young children have to go through different stage of growth that include language, cognitive, and motor milestones development.

• Overall, it is obvious that, ability of families to support and prepare young children depends on a number of factors ranging from socio-economic status of the family to ability to mitigate such hardships. That is to say, while parents are caregivers are struggling and working very hard to prepare their young children, they also need additional support to achieve their goals primarily from within the community and others as appropriate.
• Community members know that their children should attend school, but are unaware of how to help their children make the most of their education experience. Parents do not understand how other factors, such as health care, maintaining a nutritious and balanced diet, etc., can influence a child’s performance and concentration at school. Women are key in the care for young children including making sure that the socialization for all young children is taking place in a correct way that is consistency with the community expectations.
• Although majority of families reported that they can easily access a variety of services available including health, sanitation, transport etc, poor families still have inadequate or limited access to such resources including community services that are necessary to promote and support children's development and school readiness

Regarding schools preparedness for young children success. It was found that
• Both teachers and schools committees indicated that, in order for schools to be able to receive and prepare new children including young ones for lower classes, they need to have necessary services and facilities. Highly motivated teachers with adequate teaching facilities and overall good environments are what are needed
• In terms of access, the MMEM project has contributed a lot of the improved learning and teaching environment including books and other learning materials situation has improved tremendously such that the book ratio is almost getting to a situation whereby only three pupils are sharing one book except for a very few schools

• The quality of care and formal education arrangement is relatively below average. A few schools do not even meet minimum criteria to be considered safe especially for young children. Very few primary schools and day care centers have adequate supplies or trained teachers. The only requirement of a teacher is to be able to read and write, so often a community member lacking ECD training will be teaching the community’s youth. Due to lack of adequate supplies, such as paper, pens, toys, training tool kits etc students are unable to effectively learn and retain information

The study identified a number of strengths in relations to existing efforts and response for children, school preparedness for and existing linkages which include
Strength for children preparedness includes the following;

• Most families prioritize on nutrition and other basic requirements necessary for grown and development for young children.
• Presence of bi-laws empower village and ward authorities to follow and deal with households and caregivers who delays and frustrate eligible registration to pre and primary schools
• Strong services chain in the district; that is in both Mwika (rural) and Rau, almost all families have access to health and other services. There three referral hospitals and a variety of health facilities, improved water supply, improved urban sanitation and good transport

Strengths for preparedness of schools preparedness include the following

• That the structure for the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) is well established down to the community/village level that facilitate for schools to register and train eligible children

• Approved school curriculums are in place and implemented by all public schools and some private owned and managed schools.

• The cost of government school attendance is relative cheap and affordable compared to private schools, this provided enabling environment and influence care givers and communities to register and send their schools.

• There is strong collaboration between pre-schools and ECD centers and primary schools require that a prospective student for a primary school must have previously attended a preschool or ECD center. This promotes early education among children and shows the schools’ willingness to ensure ECD.

Links, continuity and relations between schools and families
• School committees, consisting of skilled professionals and parents, are the owners of the schools. Thus parents and care givers are involved in the schools management through schools committees’ discussions and deliberations.
• Given the history of Moshi district and the whole region of Kilimanjaro, parents and community are well above the normal expectations for education, commitments for children future success is high and press on parents and caregivers to ensure that children are registered for schooling when eligible

A number of challenges in relation to school and children preparedness include the following;
Challenges for preparedness of children include:

• Very few trained preschool teachers and the curriculum existing do match not link with teaching materials available
• Competing priorities at the household level, which makes ECD less important e.g.
• Families concentrate on fees and other requirements for older children attending secondary education because they know (and expect) for government to cater for primary education.
• Lack of clear mechanisms to regulate private owned ECD services and facilities
• Limited number of trained teachers in ECD services
Challenges for preparedness of schools include:

• The number of eligible children is greater than available facilities to cater for them.
• Limited number of trained teachers and services providers on ECD
• Quality of sanitation in primary schools especially in Mwika is generally poor and pose difficult and dangers for young children.
• Lack of clear mechanisms to regulate private owned schools and facilities, is likely to produce quality that do not comply to the national guidelines in terms of physical establishments and human resources

Among the major opportunities for improvement of ECD include;

• Private and FBO sector increasing interest and ambitions to invest in the expansion of the ECD services is one of the opportunities that open way for scaling up ECD services in Moshi.
• The Moshi district council is dedicated to improved ECD delivery. Over time, there are efforts to increase allocations on ECD coordination including enhancing inspection services and training for teachers
• With retirees who have accumulated experiences and skills, they can be used to support ECD activities in different ways including teaching and others especially in the rural areas.

This study recommends a number of actions that can be used to improve care and education for young children. These actions require involvements of multiple partners and they include;

• District level actions for improvement include the following;
– Work with other partners i.e. NGOs to establish ways to facilitate and scale up special programs for children with special needs, orphans, and disabilities and from poor families such that they can as well access quality services and care.
– Mobilize communities and the private sector to invest in the improvement and expansion of the ECD services and facilities.
– Mobilize more resources from possible sources and allocate additional to ECD improvements including monitoring resources utilizations to make sure that they are not diverted to other areas.
– Collect and compile appropriate data required by lower levels to prepare and plan. Data about projections of children for pre and primary enrolment can be useful for schools.
– Training and on-job training for teachers especially those for centers and lower classes and increase allocation of trained and qualified teachers to all schools according to needs.
– Improve coordination of ECD especially at the district level between education and social welfare departments.
CSOs and NGOs type of support include the following;

• Advocate for more allocations of trained teachers for ECD and primary schools that should be allocated appropriately such that each schools is allocated what it is needed.
• Support village and ward leaders plan for and prioritize for children with special needs.
• Mobilize parents to continue supporting expansion and improvement of ECD activities in the district through self help arrangements including donations.
• Mobilize parents to participate and/or contribute for the improvements in school infrastructure especially; classrooms, teachers houses, water and sanitation.

The findings from this situation analysis present a number of opportunities and challenges specific for KIWAKKUKI and ECD partners. Implies among other the following for KIWAKKUKI strategic priorities in the five years;

• Caregivers and parents are motivated to prepare their schooling; they work very hard and invest in future success.
• Majority of children from poor/low income families will go to schools with poor physical infrastructures and untrained/less motivated teachers.
• HIV/AIDS is posing a serious challenge, continue to produce orphans, who are likely to miss education and other services
• Economic hardships and competing demands frustrates ambitions to offer care and for children-early learning
• Increasing investments in early education i.e. centers and pre schools, increases chances and improves quality
• Many more untrained teachers to be used to fill the gap
• Participatory approaches to education are very limited, as teachers see themselves as the ones in control
• The home department for ECD at the district level- different departments deals with ECD in pieces
As far as ECD partners planning and priorities are concerned, they imply the following;
• Need for allocating more resources specific for ECD in the national budget. In regard to financial resources, a portion of the national budget needs to be directed towards the school systems because currently most preschools are private schools and families lacking the monetary means are left without a way to provide their children with education. All children need to have a way to attend primary schools, which means financial sponsoring from the government; such financial support should be channeled directly to MOEVT which needs to work and coordinate with other sector ministries i.e. MoHSW, PMO-RALG and MCDGC. This money must also be used to pay for the teachers’ salaries, training additional or ECD teachers or pay for on-job training for teachers already handling and teaching lower classes, buy training kits, and purchase medicine for the children (e.g. antiworm medication).

2. Advocate for a policy and guideline to support early childhood development in the country. The desired policy should clearly articulate roles, responsibilities, factors for success and additional research required to inform integrated and sustainable ECD in the Tanzania and risk mitigating measures.

3. Need to work with other sector ministries to address the gaps and chart out improvements necessary for ECD and related sectors in response to NIGPRS/MKUKUTA

4. Need for pushing for harmonized bi-laws and guidelines such that they do not create confusions and barriers rather contribute to improvements and establish accurate links between communities, schools and other services providers.
5. Need to advocate for national training strategy for ECD and primary school teachers so that to fill the gaps and improve the quality of teaching and support right away from pre through early primary school

Future ECD analysis should try to respond to the following questions;

• What is needed to prepare young children for success in school and life so as to respond to the family, community, ward and district expectations
• What does it mean for Family, Community, District and National level stakeholders to prepare schools that can support young children’s early success in school?
• Do we have a shared understanding about these issues – from family, community, District to national levels, and across different sectors?
• Are all young children well prepared for success in school and life

• How do young children themselves define preparedness for schools, what do they think about schools
• What do schools think about prepared children and what the success factors
• How district and national level players prepared to ensure that children are ready fir schools and schools are well prepared for children
• How can other stakeholders be involved in making sure that children are prepared for schools and schools are ready for children

• improved quality of care and early education at the family and community level and thereby ensure their readiness for school;

schools’ improved readiness for supporting young children’s access to and success in school

• However without the indicators for the Operational target for Early Childhood, ‘Increase in the number of young children prepared for school and schools prepared ready to care for children’ (NSGRP Cluster II), there is little data and information forthcoming in relation to progress, or the specific challenges and opportunities at national, district and community levels.

Research from elsewhere regarding children readiness for schools indicates that a number of factors affect and determine type and quality of education and care young children end up receiving. These studies point on issues of poverty, changing socio-cultural contexts, and HIV/AIDS, negatively impact on families capacity to care for and support their children’s overall development in the early years (0 – 8 ) when support is most critical. In reality
– poor families are often struggling to meet their young children’s basic needs;
– because of women’s increasing work pressures, traditional child-care support structures are dwindling , and sibling care-givers are now attending school,
– families have limited or no access to alternative child-care support arrangements which means that young children are often left alone during the day;

• Thus children from poor families and others most vulnerable children including orphans are more likely to enter school
– Undernourished and in poor health
– With limited cognitive and language abilities
– Lacking self-confidence
– Having had no preparation for school culture, social routines and language
• (Overview by ADED & CGECCD, 2006 Biennale of Education in Africa, in Gabon)

• There is consensus, based on a wealth of international research that there is a number of interacting dimensions affect a child’s early learning capacity from birth, and his/her readiness to learn and succeed in school. These include; physical well-being (including nutrition) and motor development, social and emotional development, language development, approaches to learning and cognition and general knowledge,

• Early childhood is a period of remarkable brain development that lays the foundation for all later learning. For disadvantaged children however, their circumstances often lead to poor nutrition and health, limited stimulation and early education, the impact of which goes unnoticed until they either fail to enter school, or drop out early and fail to succeed. Early intervention through parenting education, child care and support programmes for these children, including those with disabilities can significantly “...offset disadvantage and inequality, especially for children from poor families”
In Tanzanian Context, we know that there are significant challenges:-

• One out of three children are under weight, with rural children more likely to be malnourished than urban children
• The number of orphans is estimated to be 2,093,000, which is equivalent to 12% of all children (Census 2002)
• more than 95% of young children lack access to early stimulation and social protection programmes, care facilities or non-fee-paying pre-schools and parental education (UNICEF 2007)
• there is little or no data on the informal care and education of young children in family and community contexts
• Children’s access the health services remains limited ‘…eight out of ten children in Tanzania (who die), die at home and six of them without any contact with formal health services’ (URT, 2005)

• There is a lack of clear data and about children’s progress and success in the early years of primary school, and yet international research indicates that early success with basic literacy and numeracy skills is vital for ongoing success (Abadzi, 2006);
• Lack of trained pre-primary teachers – of 147,591 teachers in pre-primary school (2006) 17% of them are certified teachers (UNICEF 2007).
• Overcrowded classes impede teachers in adopting more child-friendly teaching methodologies (PHDR 2007).
• the school enrolment rate is high but so is the drop-out rate where as; only 0.3% of enrolments are disabled children, standard 1 drop-out is a high, 10.6% (UNESCO, 2007, GMR – 2004 data) and 22% of children fail to complete primary school
• Insufficient integration of ECD issues into social sector policies and guidelines regarding health, food and nutrition, water and sanitation, lobour, gender and women’s development, community development, adult education and culture.

Children preparedness for success in schools and life
• Insert picture
• Women cannot manage their workload and child care on their own family support roles
• Repetition rate for 2007/2008- 9.7% for std I & II
• Drop out rate 2007/2008 -7.5% for std IV
• Children preparedness for school is directly linked to their development and learning through Active learning
• Children learn better by exploring their potential through playing
Schools preparedness to for supporting young children’s early success
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• The poor quality of primary schools is significantly denying every child’s right to success
• Many school environments lack basic infrastructure
• Distance from formal primary schools deprive most of the children chances to enter school at appropriate age
• Satellite schools could be a best solution for these type of community
Schools preparedness to for supporting young children’s early success
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• Children not meeting minimum learning standards by grade 3 and 4 are most likely to repeat and ultimately fail school
• Most of schools are not friendly for children with disabilities
• Teacher interaction with children enhances learning
Links,continuity and relationships between diverse care and education environments for young children.
• Schools tend to dominate non formal care and education programmes
• Teachers lack the capacity to work with parents and the communities as partners in children learning
• Many children living in remote areas do not encounter Swahili until they enter school which makes their transitions to school dificult.
• Conflicting polices at guidelines at local level(Council)
• Exclusive teacher training for early primary classes
• Comprensive young children programs to build on cultural contexts(Curricullum,knowledge and practice)
• Children with disability isolated
• Need for increased awareness on how critical the early years are in children’s development at all levels.
Its our turn Now!
What best can we do to change the situation of young children in our areas?
Results from ECD Advocacy Meetting at Village & Ward level
Acrording to REPOA Report
• A human dimension that challenge all adults are:-
– Children wants to be listened
– Children want to be taught by teachers who like children and who make effort
– Children need to be heard(URT,MPEE,2007)